I guess I should define the term deployment. (Unfortunately, I couldn’t find a definition in the Jargon File, so I’ll have to tackle it myself.) I’m a software developer, and I deal mainly in web-based business systems. (In other words, web sites used by a company, internally, to do its work. Most of the stuff that I do isn’t “public” or customer-facing.)
For example, I’m currently working on a system for a call centre; it’s a website that brings up customer information, and allows you to perform transactions on behalf of that customer—perform billing transactions, do technical troubleshooting, etc. etc.
Because I use web-based technologies, for my applications, the structure is usually something like this:
The users’ browsers connect to the web server, where the application resides, and the application, in turn, accesses other back-end systems or databases. Actually, that diagram is simplified; the structure is usually a bit more like this:
(Even this diagram is simplified, but of course, I can’t give out technical details about the actual systems I’m working on.)
Usually, servers are clustered together, to help handle the volume of calls to the application, and to provide redundancy—that is, if one server goes down, the other server handles the traffic until the broken server can be repaired.
When there is a new version of the application, to introduce new features, or fix bugs, it has to be installed on the Application Servers. (Sometimes changes have to be made to the Web Servers, too.) There is also usually work to be done on one or more of the back-end databases that the application uses for its data. Since the systems I work on are web-based, there is typically nothing to install on any users’ workstations; they use their web browsers to access the application, so as soon as the application is updated, they start seeing it immediately.
A deployment is when we un-install the current version of the application, on those servers, and re-install a new version. Typically, for these types of applications, a deployment is a tricky process, involving many steps, that have to be performed in a proper sequence. Certain parts of the deployment can’t be completed until other things have completed successfully. It needs to be planned out in advance, in detail, and, where I work, we typically create a deployment plan, where we detail these steps.
And, because a deployment is so complex, a deployment plan needs to include a backout, or rollback, strategy. If you start a deployment, and for whatever reason it doesn’t work, you need to be able to go back to the version of the application that had been working, before you started the deployment.
As an example, here’s what a typical deployment is like for me, these days:
- Because the application I’m currently working on is for a call centre, which is up and running 24/7, our deployments have to be scheduled for times when the call centre is the least busy; for us, this means deployments happen Saturday nights/Sunday mornings, beginning at 1:30AM. During these wee hours on a Sunday morning, the call centre isn’t too busy, so the few people who are working can get by without our application for a while.
- But we do have to get the application back up and running by 7:00AM Sunday morning, when they start to get a bit more busy. So our deployment window is 1:30–7:00 AM.
- Our first step, when doing a deployment, is to shut the application down, so that the users can’t use it while we’re working.
- There are times, during the deployment, when the application will be in an “inconsistent state”—meaning that some pieces are up and running, and others are not. It can cause problems when people are using the application in such a state.
- In our specific case, shutting down the application means shutting down the Application Servers. Depending on the technologies used, this can be quick, or it can take a few minutes.
- For other applications, this might be accomplished by shutting down the load balancers.
Or, better yet, one might redirect the load balancer to another version of the application, which simply says that the application is down.
- Once we have shut the application down, we would deploy any appropriate changes to back-end systems; in many cases, this might be changes to a database, but in more complex deployments, we may have to sit and wait, at this point, while another back-end system performs their own, complex, deployment.
- Once all of the back-end systems are back up and running—and tested, if necessary—we bring the Application Servers back up, and begin deploying the “main” application code.
- Once the application is back up, we do a sanity test. This means that my team, who developed the application, does a quick test, to make sure that it’s properly back up and running.
- Once the sanity test is done, we would hand the application over to our client, who would do a landing test. This is a more thorough test, where they specifically test each new piece of functionality in the application, as well as regression testing existing parts of the application, to make sure it still works.
- Typically, of course, I would also be performing these tests on my own. If there are issues, I want to know as soon as possible.
- If everything goes well, this is the end of the deployment. Once all of the testing has passed successfully, we can go home and go to bed.
- If things go wrong, however—if some of the testing fails—we then have to decide how to proceed. Normally, we will do some troubleshooting on the spot; if it’s an issue we can fix immediately, we do so. Sometimes we can, and the deployment still ends successfully.
- In some cases, even when we troubleshoot the issue, we’re not able to solve the problem. There can be numerous reasons for this; perhaps it is a complex problem, that requires research, or perhaps we just run out of time, before we have to have the application back up and running for the users.
- In cases where we’re not able to solve the problem, we eventually have to make a decision to back our changes out, and put the old version of the application back in place.